Types of Cryptography | Definition of ALL Types of Cryptography, Cryptology & Cryptanalysis

In this article, we are going to discuss all the types of cryptography and their definitions.
Cryptography is basically significant in light of the fact that it permits you to safely ensure the information that you don’t need any other person to approach. It is utilized to ensure corporate insider facts, secure characterized data, and secure individual data to make preparations for things like wholesale fraud.

Today’s article is basically going to be about the types of cryptography and we will provide definitions of all types of cryptography. So let’s get started. 

I will take the assistance of a model or a situation to really clarify what cryptography is. All right. So let’s say we have a person and let’s call him Rahul. Suppose Rahul sends a message to his friend, Kumar, who’s on the other side of the world. Now, clearly, he needs this message to be private, and no one else ought to approach the message. Presently he utilizes a public discussion, for instance, the web for sending this message, the objective is to really get this correspondence. And of course, we have to be secure against someone. Now, let’s say there’s a smart guy called Sid, who has secretly got access to your communication channel. Since this person approaches your correspondence, he can do substantially more than simply listen in. 

For instance, He can attempt to change the message in itself. Now, this is just a small example. What if he actually gets access to your private information? Well, that could actually result in a big catastrophe. So how can Rahul be sure that nobody in the middle could access the message center sound? The objective here is to make correspondence secure, and that is the place where cryptography comes in.

types of cryptography and their definitions
types of cryptography and their definitions

What is cryptography?

Cryptography is the training and the investigation of procedures for getting correspondence and information within the sight of foes. So let me pause for a minute to clarify how that really occurs.

Well, first of all, we have a message. This message is firstly converted into a numeric form. And then this numeric form is applied to the key called an encryption key. Also, this encryption key is utilized in an encryption algorithm. So once the numeric message and the encryption key have been applied in an encryption algorithm, what we get is known as ciphertext. Later in this article, we will discuss the types of ciphers in cryptography. Now, this ciphertext is sent over the network to the other side of the world, where the other person who’d message is intended for will actually use a decryption key and use the ciphertext as a parameter of a decryption algorithm. And then he’ll get what we actually sent us a message. If some error had actually occurred, he would get an error. 

So let’s see how cryptography can help secure the connection between Rahul and Kumar. So to protect his message, he first converts his readable message to an unreadable form. Here, he converts the message to some random numbers, and after that, he uses a key to encrypt his message. Subsequent to applying this key to the mathematical type of his message, he gets another value. In cryptography, we call this ciphertext and there are various types of ciphers in cryptography. So now if Rahul sends the ciphertext or encrypted message over the communication channel, he won’t have to worry about somebody in the middle of discovering the private message. Regardless of whether someone figures out how to find the message, he will not have the option to decrypt the message without having a legitimate key to open this message.

So suppose if he discovers a message, and he somehow manages to tamper with the message and the message finally reaches Kumar, Kumar would need a key to decrypt the message to recover the original plaintext. So using the key he would convert a ciphertext to numerical value corresponding to the plaintext. Now after using the key for decryption, what will come out is the original plaintext message or an error. 

Now, this error is very important. It is the way Kumar knows that the message sent by Rahul is not the same as the message that he received. The error tells us that Sid has tampered with the message. Now the important thing to note here is that in modern cryptography (one of the types of cryptography), the security of the framework absolutely depends on keeping the encryption and decryption key secret. In view of the kind of keys and encryption calculations cryptography is ordered under the accompanying classes. 

What are the types of Cryptography?

Now cryptography is broadly classified and there are different types of cryptography techniques under two categories. The two types of cryptography are namely symmetric key cryptography and asymmetric key cryptography, popularly also known as public-key cryptography. Presently symmetric key cryptography is additionally named classical cryptography and modern cryptography. Further penetrating down classical cryptography is isolated into two, which are transposition cipher and substitution cipher. Then again, modern cryptography is partitioned into a stream cipher, and block cipher. So now you know what are the different types of cryptography or what are the different types of encryption techniques.

So let’s start with symmetric key cryptography first.

What is Symmetric Key Cryptography?

Symmetric key cryptography is one of the main two types of cryptography. So symmetric key calculations are calculations for cryptography that utilize similar cryptography keys for both encryptions of plain content and decryption of ciphertext, the keys might be indistinguishable, or there might be some basic change to go between the two keys. The keys by and by address a common mystery between at least two gatherings that can be utilized to keep a private data interface. This prerequisite is that the two players approach the mysterious key. This is one of the fundamental disadvantages of symmetric key encryption in contrast with public key encryption, otherwise called asymmetric key encryption.

Now symmetric key cryptography is sometimes also called secret-key cryptography. And the most popular symmetric key system is the data encryption standards which stands for DES Encryption

What is Asymmetric Key Cryptography?

Asymmetric key cryptography, otherwise called public-key cryptography, is a cycle that utilizes a couple of related keys – one public key and one private key – to encrypt and decrypt a message and shield it from unapproved access or use. A public key is a cryptographic key that can be utilized by any individual to encrypt a message so it must be translated by the expected beneficiary with their private key. A private key – otherwise called a secret key – is shared distinctly with the key’s initiator.

What is Classical Cryptography?

In classical cryptography the first information i.e., the plain content is changed into the encoded design for example figure text so we can send this information through uncertain correspondence channels. An information string known as the key is utilized to control the change of the information from plain content to encode text.

What is Modern Cryptography?

Modern cryptography is the foundation of PC and correspondence security. Its establishment depends on different ideas of science like the number hypothesis, computational-intricacy hypothesis, and probability hypothesis.

Difference between Classical Cryptography and Modern Cryptography?

Classical CryptographyModern Cryptography
It controls conventional characters, i.e., letters and digits straightforwardly.It works on binary bit sequences.
It is fundamentally founded on ‘security through haziness’. The procedures utilized for coding were kept secret and just the gatherings engaged with correspondence know about them.It depends on freely known numerical calculations for coding the data. The secrecy is gotten through an emit key which is utilized as the seed for the algorithm. The computational trouble of algorithms, nonappearance of the secret key, and so on, make it inconceivable for an aggressor to acquire the first data regardless of whether he realizes the algorithm utilized for coding.
 The entire cryptosystem is needed for communicating confidentially.Modern Cryptography requires to possession of the secret key only if the users are interested in secure communication.
Classical Cryptography vs Modern Cryptography

What is Quantum Cryptography?

Quantum Cryptography depends on material science and it depends on the laws of quantum mechanics. It is an emerging innovation that underscores the marvels of quantum material science where two gatherings can have secure correspondence dependent on the constancy of the laws of quantum mechanics.

What is Transposition Cipher?

A transposition cipher is a technique for encryption by which the positions held by units of plaintext (which are by and large characters or get-togethers of characters) are moved by a standard system so that the ciphertext sets up a phase of the plaintext.

What is a Substitution Cipher?

a substitution cipher is a strategy for encoding wherein units of plaintext are supplanted with the ciphertext, in a characterized way, with the assistance of a key; the “units” might be single letters (the most well-known), sets of letters, trios of letters, combinations of the abovementioned, etc.

What is a Stream Cipher?

A stream cipher is a symmetric key code where plaintext digits are joined with a pseudorandom cipher digit stream (keystream). In a stream cipher, each plaintext digit is encoded each in turn with the relating digit of the keystream, to give a digit of the ciphertext stream.

What is Block Cipher?

A block cipher is an encryption strategy that applies a deterministic calculation alongside a symmetric key to encode a block of text, as opposed to scrambling the slightest bit at a time as in stream ciphers.

So that was all about basic cryptography. But here a question appears. Where is Cryptography come from? So let’s start with that.

Cryptography comes from Cryptology. Yes, Cryptology is the mother of all these classifications. Cryptography is the first category of Cryptology and the second one is Cryptanalysis.

What is Cryptology?

Cryptology is an expansive, umbrella term that includes both cryptography and cryptanalysis. Cryptology incorporates the examination and practice of both cryptography (i.e., shielding information by concealing it from any individual who should see, access, or change it) and cryptanalysis (i.e., sorting out some way to get to the information without having the vital cryptographic key).

What is Cryptanalysis?

Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, “hidden”, and analýein, “to analyze”) is the investigation of breaking down data frameworks to consider the secret parts of the systems. Cryptanalysis is utilized to penetrate cryptographic security frameworks and access the substance of scrambled messages, regardless of whether the cryptographic key is obscure.

Cryptology vs Cryptography:

Cryptography is a thin idea that incorporates hash capacities, topsy-turvy encryption, and symmetric encryption, just as the various sorts of symmetric codes.Cryptology is a wide idea. Cryptology incorporates both cryptography and cryptanalysis.
Cryptography is a group of techniques to protect content in transit and at rest.Cryptology remembers everything for the domain of cryptography just as cryptanalysis. Cryptanalysis incorporates every one of the techniques for penetrating the cryptographic security frameworks.
The motivation behind cryptography is to discover approaches to make the toughest algorithms and strong keys that can secure the substance.The motivation behind cryptology isn’t just to make solid security yet additionally to test and break the cryptographical framework by doing deliberate numerical computations.
Cryptography is utilized by organizations, governments, and people the world over to get information between two endpoints and vouch for information uprightness. The lone individual holding the privileged cryptographic keys can scramble or potentially decode messages. Similarly, information altering doesn’t go undetected.Security experts use cryptology to discover weaknesses in data frameworks to make the cryptographic cycles and advancements that ensure them more grounded. Be that as it may, programmers are additionally intrigued by cryptology to concentrate on how to break the framework to take the information and execute different cybercrime.
Difference between cryptology and cryptography

So in this article, we have discussed different types of cryptography, what are the different types of encryption techniques, different types of cryptography techniques & types of ciphers in cryptography. So hope this will help. If you like this article, please like, share, and give your feedbacks.

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